The death of a loved one. A grave personal illness. Loss of income. These traumatic events rank among the most stressful experiences a person can endure, according to psychiatrists Thomas Holmes and Richard Rahe. Amid the novel coronavirus pandemic, many American are facing these stressors. The current pandemic is not just a medical tragedy. Even when the medical threat has disappeared, psychiatrists say people across the globe will battle psychological scars for years. The documented connection between viral pandemics and psychological stress dates back more than 100 years ago, when Karl Menniger linked the 1918 Spanish flu pandemic with changes in psychiatric complications. The influenza virus most commonly affects the respiratory system, but the burden on neuropsychiatric diseases are under-recognized, he said. A major study was conducted in 1920 in the United States to determine the impact of the influenza pandemic of 1918 on subsequent rates of suicide. Researchers concluded that the pandemic caused suicide to rise but a decline in alcohol consumption reduced national suicide rates. Since then, many researchers have taken a closer look at the mental health impact during and after a pandemic. A study published in 1994 in the wake of the HIV/AIDS pandemic in The

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